Ministry Of Health
Istanbul Haydarpaşa
Numune Training and Research Hospital

Organ Donation


Organ donation is the donation of some or all of a person's organs, while still healthy, to the benefit of other people after the death of the brain.


From a point of view; organ donation, blood transfusion is no different. In the sense of life saving, every healthy organ can be donated. Anyone who has reached the age of eighteen and has the ability to distinguish between right and wrong, organs such as the heart, lung, kidney, liver and pancreas; heart lining, eye corneal layer, muscle and bone marrow, and they can be transplanted in contemporary medical technology. A person can give many people a chance to live by donating their organs. Many state and university hospitals in the organ donation process are carried out in Turkey. There are also organ donation types (kidneys) that can be done while living. Transfer of donated organs is carried out within the knowledge and supervision of the Ministry of Health. Various institutions and organizations organize organ donation campaigns from time to time. In 2000, a "National Coordination System" on organ donation was created, and those waiting for organs with the Ministry's facilities were included in the systematic order. Organ donation;
In the Health Directorates,
In hospitals,
In the Police Departments (during driver's license purchase),
In the centers that organ transplant,
Foundations, associations, etc. interested in organ transplantation. organizations.

Legal Hold
Turkey in 1980 date and can be made in 2238 under Law No organ donation to be at least 18 years and this wish, in front of two witnesses, made orally, expanded voluntary and it is enough to be certified by a physician of it. For this, "Tissue and Organ Donation Certificate" can be taken by applying to the nearest health institution. This document is usually moved next to the ID card to enable doctors to recover the necessary organs in case of an accident.

Some relevant articles of the law no 2238

Article 3 - It is forbidden to buy or sell organs and tissues for a price or other benefit.

Article 4 - All kinds of advertisements regarding the collection and distribution of organs and tissues are prohibited, apart from the distribution of scientific, statistical and news information.

Article 5 - Bodies and tissues can not be taken from persons who are not 18 years old and have no rights (This item concerns live births)

Article 6 - Approval by a physician of the consent and consent of at least two witnesses before the consent of at least two witnesses for the receipt of the Organs and Tissues of a person who has completed eighteen years of age and who has been declared and signed or signed by at least two witnesses it is mandatory.

Article 11- With regard to the implementation of this matter, medical death shall be determined by a vote of the four physicians who are composed of cardiologists, one neurologist, one neurosurgeon and one specialist of anesthesiology and reanimation, by applying the rules and methods of science reached in the country.

Article 12- The physicians who will perform the receiving, receiving and storing the organs and tissues of the receiving physician and the grafting and transferring are prohibited from participating in the physicians' committee to determine the death status.

Article 15- If the act does not require a heavier punishment for those who take or sell organs and tissues, those who buy and sell them, those who act as brokers for their purchase and sale, or those who commission this commission, they shall be sentenced to two years to four years imprisonment and 50.000 TL There is a fine of up to 100.000 TL.

Organ donation methods

There are basically four methods of organ donation. These methods come into play at a time when donors are not ready to donate their own will. These regulations are not being used everywhere for the same time. Each country makes its own decisions.
Objection Method;
Extended Appeals Method;
Volunteering Method;
Extended Volunteering Method;

Among them, Objection Method is the most comprehensive method. In this method, anyone who does not have a clear objection to health is considered as a donor.

The Extended Appeal Method also includes a right: After the donor's death, the relatives of the potential donor accept the donation of the organ as the will of the deceased person in life.

The Volunteering Method brings the obligation that the donor must accept that he will forgive his organs while he is alive. It requires a procedure to accept a definite organ donation. For this reason it is very narrow.

In the Extended Volunteering Method, after the death of the donor, the family can give consent for the donation. This practice extends the Volunteering Method.

In addition to these four methods, there are two exceptional methods: Informative Method and Emergency Method

The donor's permission is essential in the Disclosure Method. If there is no written document about the potential donor for organ donation beside the potential donor, he does not want to be a donor. In this case, the family should be informed. The family has the right to appeal.

In the Emergency Method, the organ is removed in all cases, even if there is an objection from the donor himself or his family.

Transferable Organs

At the point where the developments in medicine are today, many organs of the human body can be transplanted. Here we need to make a distinction between the organs that can be donated only after death and the donor organs when living.

In living donor organs, a living person donates an organ or cell that is necessary for another human being. These organs are double or multi-layer or self-renewing organs. For example, kidney, liver and cells with renewable characteristics, or tissues such as blood, marrow and reproductive cells. The donor's age is very important for the organs of the donor, but the organs over the age of 70 are very rare.

Organs and tissues that can be accepted as donations after death are part of the pancreas, veins, intestines, ear bones, skin, heart, heart valves, transparent layer of the eye, bone, cartilaginous, liver, lung, kidney, muscle and brain membranes.

Lifetime donations

Renal transplantations are the leading cause of organ donations that can be made in life, because they are double in our bodies and donor organ donors do not lose their function. The other organ which is increasingly transplanted is the liver, which is highly renewable. But not all of the liver can be forgiven.

The donor must be at least 18 years old and able to decide. The donor should be enlightened by a physician in the presence of another physician about the shape, size, potential hazards, and the damages that may arise now and in the future of the intervention.

Donation after death

The removal of the organ for transplantation after death is only possible after the death of the brain has been determined and the permission has been obtained. Extended reading method is applicable in Turkey. Accordingly, if there is a Tissue and Organ Donation Certificate in the middle, the necessary organs to be transplanted are taken, or it can only be taken if the relatives of the deceased have an interest. Although the expression of the law is this way, according to the general application today, the organs are not taken in our country without permission from the family. Whether or not a donation document is valid, it is imperative that a family permission is obtained. First blood sample is taken from the dead. Blood group and tissue properties are determined. This data is very important for determining the recipient of the recipient organ. It is also determined here whether the organ is to be transported to any infectious disease or organ that may put the patient at risk.

Determination of brain death

Brain death should not be confused with other forms of coma, especially vegetative life. In these other cases consciousness is closed, but death is not the issue. At the time of brain death, breathing stopped and death occurred. In other words, the patient gave the last breath. In this case, there is no doubt about death. Some people doubt the determination of brain death. They are concerned that brain death may have been detected early for the sake of organ harvesting. "In March of 2008, a 22-year-old boy in the United States entered the coma as a result of a bicycle accident he had made, and after a while he was diagnosed with brain death, allowing the family to donate, but the organ reacted very recently months later, "there is not even a single case in which the news in the media was sometimes misunderstood or diagnosed as true to date, and only after the signatures were received. The important thing here is the process after the signatures of the relevant doctors are completed. In this way, no case has returned to life and has not gone into medical literature. Brain death is complete and true death. It should never be confused with other comics, and ideas should not be driven out of popular press news about the subject.

An organ can not be removed if the patient to be treated has cancer (metastasis) spreading to other cells, HIV virus (Aids), or active viruses of Creutzfeld-Jacob disease or chronic functional dysfunctions of organs.

The diagnosis of brain death is made by the brain death detection board, which consists mainly of four branches in our country. The board is composed of experts in neurology, neurosurgery, anesthesia and cardiology. This recognition is indicative of death in a way that is irreversible. There is no such thing as killing or stopping the death of a heart because death does not develop immediately when the heart stops. Life lasts until the circulation stops and the brain dies. Despite the fact that the majority of cardiac operations are stopped for hours in the heart, circulation is maintained and the brain is tried to live. On the contrary, if the brain is dead, death has occurred even if the heart works, and there is now little time left for all organs. Physicians who make death decisions can not work in organ transplantation in our country as well as in all countries in the world and they are placed outside the organ transplant.

Source: http://tr.wikipedia.org