Ministry Of Health
Istanbul Haydarpaşa
Numune Training and Research Hospital

What You Need to Know About Obesity


Obesity is among the most important health problems of developed and developing countries today. Obesity is, in general, an excessive increase in the ratio of lean mass to lean mass of the body, which exceeds the desired level of body weight according to the resultant length of the body.

Nourishment as is known; it is an indispensable need of life that starts in the womb and continues until the end of life

It is the ability of people to grow and develop, to take healthy and productive food items for a long time and to use them in the body in an adequate and balanced amount.

Satisfying your wife, suppressing hunger, not eating or drinking the things that your life will take.

Age, sex, work done, genetic and physiological characteristics of the individual (pregnant, lactating, infant, school child, young, old, worker, athlete, cardiovascular, sugar, hypertension disorder, respiratory tract disorders etc.) There is a need for daily energy change depending on the situation.

In order to maintain a healthy life, the energy consumed and the energy consumed must be balanced.

In adult males, 15-18% of body weight and 20-25% in females constitute fat tissue. This rate is 25% for males and 30% for females, resulting in obesity.

In the event that the daily energy intake is excessive, the unspent energy is stored in the body as fat and causes obesity.

Along with this, the developments in today's technology have significantly restricted daily movements, along with facilitating life.

Obviously obesity; (calorie) consumed by foods is considered to be a disease that affects the quality of life and the quality of life in a negative way, as the energy consumed is excessive and the excess energy is stored as fat in the body (20% or more).

Obesity is also defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an accumulation of excess fat in the body to the extent that it can impair health.

Causes of Obesity

The causes of obesity are not fully explained, but excessive and inadequate nutrition and physical activity inactivity are accepted as the most important causes of obesity. In addition to these factors, genetic, environmental, neurological, physiological, biochemical, socio-cultural and psychological factors cause obesity related to each other. It is recognized that the role of environmental factors in the formation of obesity is considered to be the forerunner, especially in the world, since the increase in childhood obesity is largely unexplained only by changes in the genetic makeup.

The main risk factors for the formation of obesity are listed below:

    
Excessive and incorrect eating habits
    
Insufficient physical activity
    
Age
    
Gender
    
education level
    
Socio - cultural factors
    
Income status
    
Hormonal and metabolic factors
    
Genetic factors
    
Psychological problems
    
Apply very low-energy diets at frequent intervals
    
Non-use of alcohol
    
Some drugs used (antidepressants, etc.)
    
Number of births and duration between births

     

Gülsüm USTA - Eskişehir

One of the factors that should be considered in the development of obesity is the way of eating in the first years of life. Studies have shown that the incidence of obesity is lower in children who are fed with breast milk than in children who are not breastfed, and the type, amount and timing of complementary nutrition affects obesity formation during breastfeeding.

It is recommended that breastfeeding alone for 6 months in various documents published by WHO and UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund) should be initiated after the 6th period of breastfeeding and that complementary nutrients of appropriate quality and quantity should be initiated and that breastfeeding should continue for at least 2 years. it may reduce the risk of obesity and chronic illness in the period.

Health Problems Opened by Obesity

Obesity; causes many health problems due to the adverse effects on body systems (endocrine system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, skin, genitourinary system, musculoskeletal system) and psychosocial situation.

The association of obesity with various diseases is known and the effect of increasing morbidity and mortality is also revealed. Overweight is responsible for more than 1 billion deaths each year and 12 million years of illness in the European Region

Health problems / risk factors caused by obesity:

    
Insulin resistance - hyperinsulinemia
    
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    
Hypertension
    
Coronary artery disease
    
Hyperlipidemia - Hypertriglyceridemia
    
Metabolic syndrome
    
Biliary diseases
    
Some types of cancer (biliary tree, endometrium, ovarian and breast cancers in women, and colon and prostate cancers in men)
    
osteoarthritis
    
Paralysis
    
Sleep apnea
    
Liver fatigue
    
Asthma
    
Respiratory difficulty
    
Pregnancy complications
    
Menstrual irregularities
    
Excessive hair
    
Increased risk of surgery
    
Psychological problems (such as anorexia nevroza or Blumia neurroza, binge eating, night eating syndrome, or eating more to improve psychological satisfaction)
    
Social discrepancies
    
In particular, skin infections due to excess weight loss and gain in subcutaneous fat tissue, fungal infections in pubes and feet
    
Musculoskeletal system problem